Lexicon of Gemstones



The stone which brings couples luck

Aquamarine is one of the best-loved precious stones. It gets its name from the color, like the color of the sea. The largest and most beautiful stones come from Brazil, they also occur in Zambia, Mozambique, Angola, Nigeria, Afghanistan und in Madagascar.

Like emeralds, aquamarine is a variation of beryl. It occurs naturally in a wide range of shades, from light blue to green. The coloring is due to the iron content in particular. Aquamarine crystallizes in long, hexagonal prisms and often shows characteristic inclusions. 

The gem was loved by the early Greeks and Romans, who believed it protected the wearer on voyages by ship. It is also considered to bring luck to engaged couples and strengthen a marriage. Aquamarine is said to relieve the symptoms of toothache, epilepsy and liver disease.



The stone that favors surprises

Aventurine is a kind of quartz consisting of interlinked transparent grains of quartz (quartzite). Mineral inclusions lend it its color. Most of the stones are green, but the color spectrum ranges from silver and copper tones to red and brown. The green shade is created by fuchsite. The stones often generate a special glow which is also known as “aventurizing“. The best-known green specimens come from Nepal, India and Brazil. Bernd Wolf uses best quality aventurine from Brazil with homogeneous coloring and extraordinary clarity. Only a small fraction of the extracted mineral has these properties.

The stone is said to favor surprises and to bring luck in love and gambling. It is credited with the attributes of originality, independence and self-control. In medicine, aventurine is ascribed binding and healing powers, it is said to be beneficial in skin disorders. It is the stone of the environment, in particular of the forests.

Blue Striped Agate

Blauer Streifenachat

The stone, that increases your self-confidence

The blue striped agate is one of the chalcedonies and fascinates with a striped, bright crystal structure and bright blue luster. The stone has a special radiance thanks to the soft blue hue and the curved stripes.

The blue striped agate is said to increase self-confidence, openness and eloquence. There are also claims that it heals inflammations of the throat and protects against their infection. The blue striped agate shaped by Bernd Wolf is from South Africa.

Fire Agate


The stone which invigorates the energy of love.

Fire agate is the name given to reddish-brown chalcedony which is either found in hollows of volcanic origin or is formed by firing and etching agate. The patterning of the stone with its fine light lines echoes the structure of snakeskin.

The fired fire agates worked by Bernd Wolf are fascinating with their marbled structure and warm, red-brown color tone.

To the Native Indian, fire agate is a sexual stone, which heightens sensuality and increases openness to passionate love. It is said to have a harmonious effect on the body and soul, freeing people from excessive anxiety. The fire agates worked by Bernd Wolf originate from Brazil.

Gold & Silver

Gold und Silber

Symbols of perfection and prosperity.

Bernd Wolf was one of the first jewelry designers to establish a place on the market for the combination of 925 silver with gold-plating, recognizing that a well-tolerated and long-lasting combination of materials had been found.

In the Bernd Wolf studios in Freiburg/Black Forest the gold is galvanically applied in a complex multi-layer process developed by Bernd Wolf. The gold has practically the same content as fine gold (23.7 carat or 990/1000), giving the items of jewelry their warm, sunny glow. The process is spoken of as plating as the gold layers are as thick as if a thin gold sheet had been soldered on.

In almost all cultures, gold is associated with the sun, as a symbol of the light of the heavens, fertility and perfection. Silver, on the other hand, symbolizes the moon and its gods. As a decorative metal it was the symbol of bourgeois affluence. In folklore, silver is considered to be a metal which deters demons

In ancient China, gold was the embodiment of the essential essence of Yang, the dual complement to silver (Yin). The combination of silver and gold is therefore comparable to the harmonious combination of Yin and Yang.



The stone that inspires our imagination and stimulates our intuition

This blue, iridescent gemstone belongs to the family of feldspar minerals and owes its name to the Canadian island of Labrador, where labradorite was discovered in the 18th century. Other deposits are in Finland, Australia, the USA and Madagascar. The labradorite used by Bernd Wolf is from Zambia.

Labradorite is characterized by a captivating, vibrant interplay of colors. As a result of light reflection and absorption – depending on the beholder’s angle of view and the angle of the incident light – labradorite displays a veritable “fireworks” of colors, which is enhanced by inclusions of other minerals, such as titanite and magnesite. This phenomenon in called shiller effect or labradorescence.

Labradorite is said to inspire the wearers’ imagination and boost their creativity. It is also believed to stimulate our intuition, strengthen our memory and alleviate joint pains.



The stone that increases self-confidence and the joy of living.

The term ‘garnet’ stands for a group of 10 differing precious stones with similar composition, whereby the dark red pyrope (Greek.: fiery) corresponds to the general image of garnets. The name is derived from the Latin word „granum“ and refers to the round grain-shape in which it often naturally occurs. The common name for garnet is red carbuncle stone.

The range of color of garnets reflects the colors of late summer. They occur in greens, browns, yellows, oranges and red shades. Due to the high refraction, the stone gleams like a diamond. Garnet is a particularly hard precious stone. Previously most garnets used for jewelry originated from Bohemia, today they come from the USA, India, South Africa, Brazil and Sri Lanka.

The stone is regarded as a crisis stone, offering help in desperate situations and increasing self-confidence, will-power and the joy of life. It is said to promote active and balanced sexuality, to help against diseases of the heart and mind as well as strengthening the heart, circulation and the brain

Other Gems

Hematine and Hematite


Hematite - The stone which strengthens the heart and gives courage.

Hematite is an iron ore and occurs as a collection of kidney-shaped nodules in the hollows in red iron rock. It is found world-wide, with the largest deposits in Brazil, China and Australia. The grinding water is blood-red, giving the stone its name (the Greek word Haimatoeis means blood).

The stone is said to have a blood-stilling effect. It is believed to strengthen the heart and give courage and power. For this reason it was given to soldiers going into battle.

The processed stone is also known as hematine. Hematine is sintered out of iron oxide (pulverized before being shaped under high pressure and high temperature). Bernd Wolf works with natural hematite and reconstructed hematine.



The stone which awakens latent powers

Carnelian is one of the oldest stones used in jewelry, it was even worn by the Pharaohs. It belongs to the chalcedony group and is related to agate, onyx, jasper and chrysopras. Its color can vary from red to orange to red-brown. Found mainly in Brazil and Uruguay, it also occurs in India, North Africa, Russia and Japan.

Lengthy exposure to the sun can cause brown stones to turn red. For the Ancient Greeks, the carnelian is associated with the recurring sun. It is said to improve circulation, promote blood cleansing, reduce blood pressure and strengthen resistance to disease. It is seen as a stone of power, awakening vital energy and strengthening the power of love. It is said to increase dynamism, awaken creativity and help to develop latent powers, helping people to find their own way.



The stone which relaxes and make taking the right action easier.

Kyanite has its name from the Greek word “kynos“, (dark blue). In Germany, the stone is also known by the name disthene (“two hardnesses”).

Kyanite is found in Brazil, India, Kenya, Russia, Serbia, USA and in Ticino / Switzerland. The best-quality kyanite used by Bernd Wolf originates from Brazil. Kyanite contains aluminum, silicon and oxygen. It is bluish to light gray in color, with hardness varying across its length and width. Its translucent, mysterious luster lends the stone a unique radiance.

Kyanite is credited with a harmonizing and relaxing effect. It is said to brighten up the wearer’s mood, to have a positive effect on the cerebral speech center and to make conversation easier. It is said to give its wearer a self-determined air and the ability to instinctively take the right actions.

Lapis Lazuli


The stone which strengthens friendships and brings stability.

The name "Lapis lazuli" has its origin in the Persian language and means “blue stone". The color of this opaque stone ranges from a pure ultramarine blue to lighter blue tones. Clear and white inclusions are due to the calcite, and reduce quality. The very popular gold colored inclusions are caused by pyrite and resemble the stars in the sky. The extraordinarily good quality stones processed by Bernd Wolf come from the Hindu Kush area, located between Russia and Afghanistan. There it is mined from June till November at an altitude of 3,500m to 5,500m. There are also large reserves of lesser quality in Siberia, at Lake Baikal, and in Chile.

In antiquity, lapis lazuli was already considered a sacred stone and was worshiped by many cultures on the basis of its positive qualities. It is said to protect from the evil eye and help against gout, blood diseases and insomnia. It is considered to be the ideal friendship stone, standing for stability. It is said to reinforce willpower and helpfulness and to protect from bad influences.



The stone which brings luck and promotes self-control.

Today, onyx is found mainly in Brazil, in earlier days also in significant quantities in Germany, particularly near Idar-Oberstein.

Onyx is a modification of agate; for the past 5,000 years onyx has been darkened with honey, later with sugar water, creating black onyx.

Onyx is said to protect from disturbing influences and help in coping with karma. It is credited with sharpening vision and hearing and enhancing the ability to listen. Onyx is said to have a positive effect on nails, hair and skin. It is used for the treatment of earache in homeopathic dilutions. It is said to make its wearer calm, restrained and fearless, to promote self-control and to bring luck in marriage.



Symbols of love and beauty.

To protect against foreign bodies like sand, shells form a layer of mother-of-pearl, the conchiolin layer. Thus pearls are formed. As the layer becomes thicker, it takes on a magical shine (the luster) of pearl. Pearls are cultured by introducing a foreign body into the shell or producing tiny alterations in the shell tissue.

The freshwater pearls preferred by Bernd Wolf originate from China, where the culture of pearls has advanced enormously over the past 20 years. The most important pearl shapes in the Bernd Wolf Collection are the round pearls, baroque pearls, rod-shaped pearls and Keshi pearls. Large, round Chinese pearls are cultured by removing the pearl after a certain time, grinding it round and implanting it again. Keshi pearls are irregular in shape, occurring randomly, for example by the shell filling out a space where a pearl had grown previously. Depending on the size and type of pearl, the pearls are harvested after 15 to 72 months. Bernd and Yvonne Wolf travel to China twice a year to discover new pearl cultures and select high quality pearls.

Pearls symbolize femininity, perfection, preciousness, perception, and purity. In Ancient Greece, the pearl was a symbol of Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty.



The stone which strengthens the immune system and improves perception.

Prehnite is a calcium-aluminum silicate. It is named after the Dutch Colonel van Prehn who brought it back from the Cape of Good Hope in 1783. It was first known as Cape Emerald.

The stone is mainly light green, with a mother-of-pearl luster. Prehnite is mainly found in Australia, South Africa, Germany, China, Scotland and the USA. The prehnite in extraordinary quality used by Bernd Wolf originates from South Africa. Typical for the stone are its rutile-like, or streaked, dark inclusions.

In stone lore, prehnite is ascribed a strengthening effect on the immune system. It is believed to promote the burning of body fat, to accelerate the removal of toxic deposits from the body and to further all renewal processes in the body. It is said to sharpen perception: the stone lends courage, serenity and harmony, and is considered one of the stones of the heart.

Smoky Quartz


The stone which brings joie de vivre.

Smoky quartz, part of the quartz family, is a version of rock crystal. Cosmic radiation has produced its unique brown coloring.  Nowadays X-rays can also convert rock crystal to smoky quartz. The most beautiful smoky quartz is to be found in the Swiss Alps, Colorado and Brazil.

The Romans believed that smoky quartz could restore a person's zest for life after a period of great suffering. The Arabs regarded it as a stone that represented loyalty and friendship. Smoky quartz is said to support people engaged in self-development, and to help them overcome fear, anxiety and depression. It is believed to assist people in getting grounded, facilitating and meditation and indreasing their sense of responsibility. In the field of gemstone therapy, smoky quartz is used to cure abdominal diseases. It is also said to protect against harmful radiation.


Rutilated Quartz


The Stone of Wisdom.

Rutilated quartz is a bright rock crystal with gold-colored or reddish titanium inclusions. These inclusions are also referred to as “Venus hair” or “angel hair”. The most beautiful specimens of rutilated quartz originate from Brazil, the Alpine countries, Australia and the USA.

Rutilated quartz is adored as a protective stone and the stone of wisdom. In old legends it is said that the rays of the sun have been captured in rutilated quartz, helping its wearer to find the right path.

Rutilated quartz is supposed to strengthen the respiratory system and therefore important in the field of gemstone healing.

In addition, it is believed to support our personal growth and protect us from evil forces.

Sardegna Coral

Sardegna Koralle

Protects against bad influences and strengthens love.

Sardegna Coral or Corallium rubrum originates from the Mediterranean. Its red color is legendary; it is also known as the Red Mediterranean coral or Sciacca. The coral retains its natural color and is not re-dyed.

Due to rich deposits and controlled harvesting, Sardegna corals can be processed and used commercially without any restrictions. The corals used by Bernd Wolf are harvested from depths of approx. 300 meters.

Corals were worn in antiquity both as jewelry and as protection against witchcraft. An ancient legend recounts the origin of the coral: Medusa, a terrifying monster, turned humans into stone with its look. The ancient Greek hero Perseus beheaded the monster and threw its head into the sea. The blood splattering from the head turned into corals – this is why they are still worn today as an amulet against the “evil eye” and being bewitched. Corals are said to alleviate anxiety and tension, ease breathing problems and strengthen love.

Black Spinel


The stone which stimulates self-healing.

The black spinel owes its name to the Greek word “spinos“ for “spark“ or rather “sparkle“ and was considered a sought -after precious stone even in ancient times. The spinel used by Bernd Wolf is of Indian origin.

The mineral group of spinels presents itself in a broad spectrum of colours – from transparent to green, blue and red up to black stones. Iron contents give the black spinel its magnificent brilliance which underlines the natural beauty of its bearer in a classically elegant way. So even today this gem is seen as a perfect companion in daily life because people love to choose it as an alternative to diamonds and because it is very resistant to external influences due to its hardness.

In turn, the black spinel is said to pass on this resistance onto its owner too. It is said to help limit fear and overcome crises. It is considered a healing stone which supports the immune system and activates self-healing powers. Positive effects on the power of concentration as well as the stimulation of abstract thinking are attributed to this stone.



The stone that makes for a radiant aura and joie de vivre.

Amber is fossilized tree resin and found mainly in regions that once were covered with pinewoods or other conifer forests. The name “amber” is derived from the Middle Persian word ambar, via Medieval Latin ambra and Middle French ambre, and originally referred to a solid waxy substance called ambergris that is produced in the digestive system of sperm whales.

Amber is mined mainly in the Baltic regions, especially in the area around Kaliningrad, but it is also found in the Dominican Republic, in Japan, Mexico, Poland and the Ukraine.

Amber counts among the most well-known jewelry materials and was already popular back in the Neolithic period. It is referred to as the first gemstone in human history.

Amber is believed to have powerful healing properties, alleviating in particular the symptoms of allergies and skin irritations as well as the pain of rheumatic diseases and migraine. In addition, it makes for a radiant aura and positive attitude, helps against depression and enhances our joie de vivre.

Tahitian Pearl


The queen of pearls.

The Tahitian pearl is a dark pearl from the South Seas and is  grown in the black-lipped oyster pinctada margaritifera. This oyster can reach an age of 30 years, have a diameter of up to 30 cm and a weight of up to 5 kg.

The shells of the pinctada margaritifera have been praised for their extraordinary characteristics ever since: the thickness and the quality of the pearl and the brilliance of their colours. It is the most versatile oyster with regard to the colour of its pearls. Its palette of colours ranges from light-grey gold and purple via black-green up to black. The colour of the pearl cannot be altered and solely depends on the individual shell.

Pearls symbolise femininity, perfection, preciousness, knowledge and purity. In ancient Greece the pearl was the symbol of Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty.



The stone that makes for calm serenity.

The color spectrum of this beautiful gemstone ranges from delicate to intense azure blue and from pale to dark green. Turquoise owes its name (which is derived from the French term “pierre turquoise” meaning “Turkish stone”) to the ancient trade route via Turkey, on which it was brought from Persia to Europe. The blue turquoise used by Bernd Wolf usually originates from China, some of it from Arizona. The green specimens are from China.

Turquoise is a mineral that usually occurs in the shape of microcrystalline nuggets interspersed by dark limonite veins. Its discreet, appealing luster reminds us of the matte sheen of fine porcelain. Thanks to the cool charm of its azure-blue color, turquoise is an ideal companion for warm summer days, whereas any of the various hues of the green specimens makes for an enchanting accessory at any time of the year.

Turquoise is supposed to stimulate muscle build-up and our ability for regeneration, and to have anti-inflammatory as well as detoxifying effects. In Ancient Greece, it was regarded as the protective stone of travelers. It is also believed to energize its wearers, to boost their self-confidence, indeed their assertiveness, and to make for calm serenity.


Sponge Coral


Protects against bad influences and strengthens love.

Sponge Coral or Corallium Gorgonacea, comes from the Pacific Ocean. It grows at depths of 10 to 50 m, is harvested by divers and looks like a small tree. Individual corals can reach a diameter of over one meter. There are over 2000 types of coral, of which some threatened species are under protection. Sponge coral, which is not a protected species, occurs in great numbers, only a small proportion of which is harvested.

The unusual color is fascinating, (especially in the very good quality worked by Bernd Wolf). Coral is used in amulets as protection against the “evil eye”.  Coral is said to strengthen love: it symbolizes the power of the water world; in Ancient China it represents long life.


BERND WOLF Manufacture

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Our goldsmiths manufacture your pieces of jewelry in the BERND WOLF manufactory near the city of Freiburg in the Black Forest

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